of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance
California Emerging Infections Program (CEIP), one of eleven
Emerging Infections Program sites, conducts surveillance for
invasive bacterial diseases due to pathogens of public health
importance. For each case of invasive disease in the study population,
CEIP generates a case report with basic demographic information,
and sends bacterial isolates from normally sterile sites to
CDC for laboratory testing.
-Determine the incidence and epidemiologic characteristics of
invasive disease due to Group A streptococcus, Group B streptococcus,
Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis,
Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in several large populations.
-Determine molecular epidemiologic patterns and microbiologic
characteristics of public health relevance for isolates causing
invasive infections for select pathogens.
-Provide an infrastructure for further research, such as special
studies aimed at identifying risk factors for disease, post-licensure
evaluation of vaccine efficacy, and monitoring effectiveness
of prevention policies.
Components of ABCs
The main components of Active Bacterial Core Surveillance are
active laboratory based surveillance and special studies.
A case of invasive bacterial disease is defined as isolation
of Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis,
Group A streptococcus, Group B streptococcus, Listeria monocytogenes,
or Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from a normally sterile
site in a resident of one of the surveillance areas. Normally
sterile sites include: blood, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid,
peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, surgical aspirate, bone,
or joint fluid.
Special circumstances also apply for Group A streptococcus and
Group B streptococcus case definitions. Reports of Group A streptococcal
tissue isolates known to have been collected during surgical
procedures (e.g., muscle collected during debridement for necrotizing
fasciitis) and Group A streptococcus from wound cultures of
cases accompanied by necrotizing fasciitis or Streptococcal
Toxic Shock Syndrome (STSS) are considered cases for surveillance
purposes. Reports of placenta and/or amniotic fluid with group
B streptococcus, when fetal death occurs, are also considered
cases for surveillance.
Yearly surveillance reports for pathogens under surveillance
are available in PDF format at the following link: http://www.cdc.gov/abcs/reports-findings/surv-reports.html
ABCs Projects (For completed and archived ABCs projects click
1. Active surveillance for invasive disease caused by Groups
A and B Streptococci, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria
meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and MRSA.
2. Isolate collection and testing of all isolates of Group A
streptococcus, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria
meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and
a subset of MRSA isolates.
3. Enhanced Surveillance for Invasive Early-Onset and Late-Onset
Group B Streptococcal (EOGBS) and (LOGBS) Disease - Missed Opportunities
Since January 1, 1998 for all cases of invasive
EOGBS (cases <7 days of age) and January 1, 2003 for LOGBS
(cases 7- 89 days old) prenatal screening and other EOGBS/LOGBS
risk factor information has been collected from both infant
and maternal (labor and delivery) charts. The goal of this sub-study
is to assess implementation of interventions to prevent perinatal
transmission and risk factors for neonatal sepsis.
4. Active Surveillance for Pathogens Causing Neonatal Sepsis:
Expanded surveillance for all culture-confirmed
cases of bacterial sepsis and/or meningitis (excluding coagulase-negative
Staphylococcal and contaminants) in infants less than 30 days
of age began March 1, 1998. For cases occurring on or after
January 1, 2000, the case definition was modified to include
only infants less than 7 days of age born at a surveillance
area hospital. Data collected include labor and delivery, maternal
risk factor information, and newborn clinical information abstracted
from infant and maternal delivery charts.
5. Expanded Case Report Form for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease
Since January 1, 2000, demographic and vaccination
history information has been collected from primary health care
providers for all invasive pneumococcal infections in children
3 months to less than 5 years of age. Results from this expanded
surveillance will enable the detection of pneumococcal conjugate
vaccine failures or failures to vaccinate in this vulnerable
6. Assessing the Effectiveness of Tetravalent Meningococcal Conjugate
Vaccine among Persons Aged 11-21 Years:
The purpose of this study is to conduct a
case-control, retrospective study to evaluate the effectiveness
of the tetravalent (A, C, Y, W-135) meningococcal conjugate
vaccine (MCV4) against invasive meningococcal disease in persons
11-to 21-years-old. MCV4 was licensed based on safety and immunogenicity
data, without data on clinical efficacy. In February 2005, MCV4
was recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices
(ACIP) of the CDC for routine use among young adolescents aged
11-12 years, for those adolescents who have not previously received
MCV4 before high school entry, college freshmen living in dormitories,
and other populations at increased risk. Study enrollment began
January 1, 2006 and will continue through December 31, 2009.
more details on ABCs projects, please visit the following links:
CDC's ABCs Website
MRSA Fact Sheet
is CDC doing about MRSA?
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